We are very happy to share the experience of pharmaceutical practice in Russia.
The pharmacy era in Russia was started during the reign of Peter the Great, when in 1701 legislative regulation of the pharmacies was settled. In this period dispensing of medicines became focus in pharmacies.
20 September 1789 was published the first Pharmaceutical Charter of imperial Russia. 23 paragraph of this document reflect the resolutions of the government to pharmaceutics and established pharmacy practice in Russia. The provisions of the Charter related to the duties of the chief pharmacist, rules of manufacturing, storage and dispensing, and what is important fully concentrated manufacturing and dispensing of medicines in pharmacies.
In the USSR dispensing of drugs (both OTC and Rx) was maid by pharmacies. Thus, compounding and dispensing of medicines in pharmacies were maid only by specialists with pharmaceutical education.
However, in rural areas, there was a problem of availability of drugs, because of the size of the country pharmacies were not in all settlements. It was therefore decided to allow medical specialists working in the rural health post, so-called feldsher-midwife stations (FAPs) to dispense medicines. However this was possible only if there was no pharmacy in a settlement.
Today, according to the current Federal law of the Russian Federation «On circulation of medicines» from April 12, 2010, dispensing of medicines is carried out only through pharmacies and if the village has no pharmacy FAPs can perform dispensing.
There are several varieties of pharmacies in Russia:
- with no compounding department;
- with compounding department of non sterile-medicines;
- with compounding department of both sterile- and non sterile-medicines.
2. gSmall pharmacyh (always without a compounding department)
3. Pharmacy booth - can dispense only the OTC drug
Number of drug dispensing organizations:
- 28 476 pharmacies,
- 33 974 gsmall pharmaciesh
- 1 044 pharmacy booths
- 2 421 hospital pharmacies
- 19 824 FAPs licensed to sell medicines
For pharmaceutical activities in Russia, all pharmacies and FAPs must obtain a special license issued by the regional departments of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation.
To obtain a license pharmacies need to meet the criterias of the law on licensing and the standard, which is an analog of the GPP (where are minimum requirements for the premises and equipment of pharmacy, store and dispense drugs, staff).
FAPs can dispense drugs which are registered in the Russian Federation in the established procedure and included in the list of medicinal products (except for narcotic and psychotropic), which can be sold medical organizations and their separate subdivisions.
In pharmacies medicines (both OTC and Rx) may be carried out only by specialists with pharmaceutical education, which can be 2 types. There is a higher education - 5 years of education (diplomas) and 1 year internship with a specialization. After specialization pharmacist receives a special certificate, without which he canft work in a pharmacy. There is also a special secondary education - 4 years, after which the diploma and the certificate giving the right to work in a pharmacy. Pharmacists should have training course for the new certificate at least 1 in every 5 years.
Also in Russia there are a number of problems associated with the dispensing of drugs. Today is actively discussed the issue of resolving the shops to sell some OTC drugs and pharmaceutical community is concerned about the effect this might have on the health of patients. Because the consultation of a qualified specialist is one of the keys to successful treatment and protection against errors in self-medication.
There is an acute problem of the prestige of pharmacist profession because of the trend of reducing the role of the pharmacist to the seller of drugs and eliminating pharmacists from the healthcare team. Also there is a need to change the training of pharmacists and their postgraduate training according to the modern requirements of the society.
Moscow Pharmaceutical society is very concerned about pharmaceutical problems in Russia and abroad trying to contribute to the development of the pharmaceutical profession in our country. We develop various educational projects, for example, algorithms of counseling were created. We have our scientific journal and work together with other pharmaceutical magazines over articles about various diseases and their ways of treatment. Relevant topics are discussed at various conferences.
Also we have an active social position and conduct educational activities among the population. Together with popular science magazine we tell people about the health, responsible self-medication, peculiarities of receiving drugs and etc. in available for consumers form.
We have a website, which we plan to translate to English in 2014. (http://mospharma.org/). Now it can be translated by Google. After 10 days on the website the English version of the report on our activities for 2013 will be published.
We welcome the opportunity to exchange experience with our colleagues from Japan and hope for further cooperation!
Chairman of the board,
Prof. Roza Yagudina